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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Statistics on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: 

70% of adults in the U.S. have experienced some type of traumatic event at least once in their lives. This equates to approximately 223.4 million people. Up to 20% of these people go on to develop PTSD. As of today, that equates to approximately 44.7 million people who were or are struggling with PTSD.

An estimated 8% of Americans - 24.4 million people - have PTSD at any given time. That is equal to the total population of Texas.

An estimated one out of every nine women develops PTSD, making them twice as likely as men. 

PTSD is recognized as a psychobiological mental disorder that can affect survivors not only of combat experience, but also terrorist attacks, natural disasters, serious accident, assault or abuse, or even sudden and major emotional losses.
(Source: PTSD United, www.ptsdunited.org/ptsd-statistics-2/)

Roughly 20 veterans a day commit suicide nationwide, according to new data from the Department of Veteran Affairs.

In 2014, the latest year available, more than 7,400 veterans took their lives, accounting for 18 percent of all suicides in America. 
(Source: MilitaryTimes.com, https://www.militarytimes.com/veterans/2016/07/07/new-va-study-finds-20-veterans-commit-suicide-each-day/)

Targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat haunting traumatic memories
Akirav, Irit
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2013 Sep, 7: 124-132 (Full).

The endocannabinoid system as a possible target to treat both the cognitive and emotional features of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Trezza, Viviana, et al. 

Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2013 Aug 9, (online article).

Medical Marijuana for the Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: An Evidence Review

Campos-Outcalt, et al.

The University of Arizona: Mel And Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. 2012, (online article).

On Disruption of Fear Memory by Reconsolidation Blockade: Evidence from Cannabidiol Treatment
Stern, Cristina A J, et al.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Aug, 37(9): 2132-2142 (Full).

Cannabinoids Prevent the Development of Behavioral and Endocrine Alterations in a Rat Model of Intense Stress
Ganon-Elazar, Eti, et al.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Sep 14, 37: 456-466 (Full).

Enhancing Cannabinoid Neurotransmission Augments the Extinction of Conditioned Fear
JP, Chhatwal, et al.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 Dec 22, 30: 516-524 (Full). 

PTSD Symptom Reports of Patients Evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program

Greer, George, et al. 

Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 2014 Mar 14, 46(1): 73-77 (abstract).

Elevated brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor availability in post-traumatic stress disorder: a positron emission tomography study
Neumeister, Alexander, et al.
Molecular Psychiatry. 2013 Sep, 18(9): 1034-1040 (abstract).

Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
Das, Ravi K, et al.
Psychopharmacology. 2013 Apr, 226(4): 781-792 (abstract).

The Endocannabinoid System Provides an Avenue for Evidence-Based Treatment Development for PTSD
Neumeister, Alexander
Depression and Anxiety. 2013 Feb, 30(2): 93-96 (abstract).

Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: A review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence

Passie, Torsten, et al. 

Drug Testing and Analysis. 2012 June 26, 4(7-8): 649-659 (abstract). 

Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders
Campos, Alline Cristina, et al.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2012 Dec 5, 367(1607): 3364-3378.

Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report
Crippa, Jose Alexandre, et al.
Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2011 Jan, 25(1): 121-130 (abstract).


The effects of intra-hippocampal cannabinoid implants on memory, plus-maze anxiety and contextual fear conditioning - Implications for post traumatic stress disorder
Soproni, Krisztina
FENS. 2006, 3 (abstract).